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100                                                   TAI ouour

It must be remembered that the bare root-word, by itself* can, as explained in the
introduction to the family, bo iised for any tense

Adverbs.—Words perform the function of adverbs, just as they do those of other
parts of speech   Most of them aw compounds, arid  the meaning of the separate
members is not always very clear   Examples arc,-—
mu-tiai, time-now, then,

cMm, quick-come-swift, as soon as.
ii, previcms-place-time, as usual.
mf-lau-kin, ever, at any time.

The negative particles arc lau, and wa, not   The usual verb substantive is u, be,
but, with lau, ml is used instead.   In the thiid specimen we have also JHW, not, and
if is not.

The Klumti negatives are u (pronounced un or n )~audftz<5    Slun, lias <LMI find mau,   Siamese haa «ai anil

in*.

As in other Indo-Chinese languages, the force of an adverb is most frequently
obtained by compounding the word performing the function of a verb with some
other word which gives it the necessary colour, Thus pai, go, nait unexpectedness;pai-
»«», (to) go unexpectedly. So many others,
Prepositions and pQStpOsitionS,-Tho following are examples of the way in
which words perform the functions of post- or pre-positions. They can all, as usual,
perform other functions as required :—
dk, outside ; run dfc, outside the house,
bai, on (or to put); Wiring lai mdnt on his body,
kdnrpd) place-side, towards; man Jcan-pd, towards her
shau (of. kkau), in (or to enter); nli-dui shew, m the field
an, before; an kau-mai} before me,
dn-m, before^before, before; man an-na, before thec.
M-lang> oil-back, after; ti-nan Ui-Ung, after that.
to (or ka)-ldng, at-back, after; M-ldng Uw lew mi mm-m, after not days now
many, after a few days.
kd~tau. at below, under; kd-tau a-nan tun, under that tree.
Tetitog* middle,between; kldng ahdng, between both.
pwt> beyond; pm mung fan, beyond a country far, a land far away.
Um> after; lun-lang> after back, afterwards.
doin> with j doin Mng-shtu, with harlots; &<w doin, with me ; chdm-doin joined-
withywith; Jcha-lik cMm-doin> amongst servants; dmn-chdm kmi-rik-tai, with
friends.
ftftau* enter, m, into, 0114 na-fap khau, into the Held, tin khan, on on the feet; khau
ftan, into the compound; Miau m, in the hand; Khan d-ntin rm, in that
house
no, before; &*& (see above); KMnp»a> before, in the presence of,
no or nu, above, on; nMt above the head, against ipha n'o-ro, against Heaven; in*
tf, on the tree; no Ung man, on his back; m doi» on the top of a Mil; no mS-
, oa a horse.